Who is this website for?

This website is for everyone.

And it is especially for gay men and lesbians who
find a conflict between their sexuality and their
Christian faith.  Many gay men and lesbians feel
that they are naturally attracted to people of the
same sex but they are told by Christians that the
Bible says that homosexuality is wrong.

What is the purpose of this website?

One purpose of this website is to show that
homosexuality is morally neutral as an orientation
(same-sex attraction).  In other words, being
sexually attracted to persons of the same sex is
no better or worse than being sexually attracted
to persons of the opposite sex.

Some men can deeply love, and be in love, with
another man just as other men can with women.  
Similarly, some women can deeply love, and be
in love, with another woman.  The important thing
is the strong bond between them and the mutual
responsibility to love and take care of each
other.  Their sexual activity is a secondary matter,
just as it is for male-female couples.

Another purpose of this site is to show that, if
done with caring love, homosexuality is morally
correct as a sexual activity.

How did this website come about?  And why
should I take notice of this site when my church
has said for centuries that homosexuality and
sodomy are wrong?

The author of this website had noticed that a
number of gay people experienced conflicts
between their religion (mainly Christianity) and
their sexuality, with some even taking their own
lives as a result.  This led to years of research
about religion and sexuality, undertaken on the
internet and in religious books and journals.  The
research was carried out with an open mind,
with the aim of proving a pro-gay view.  In fact,
many pro-gay and anti-gay views put forward by
“experts” were rejected because the views were
illogical or based on false assumptions.  The aim
here is for this site to be as accurate, complete,
logical and unbiased as possible.

Where the information on this site conflicts with
statements of churches and religious leaders, in
most cases the church or leader statements are
biased or wrong.

Can you briefly summarize this website?

This website shows that the Bible’s
condemnation of homosexual activity (sex
between men and sex between women)
does not
apply today
.  This is because the condemnation
applied only to the ancient Israelite and
Roman cultures of Bible times
.  For those who do
not accept this
culture argument, the
does not apply today when the
sexual activity
causes no harm.

Why does the Web address of this website
contain the words “gays and slaves”?

Because the types of arguments that many
people now use against gay persons are very
similar to the types of arguments used in the past
to justify slavery.


Why is it important what the Bible says about
homosexual or same-sex acts?

Christians and Jews believe that one of the main
aims of living is to glorify God.  This is done by
following the Love Commandments, i.e. by loving
God totally and by loving our neighbor as
ourselves.  In addition, God has given us
directions and principles in the Bible about things
we should or should not do in our lives.

Does the Bible condemn homosexuality?

  • Homosexuality can mean either people
    being attracted to others of the same sex
    (orientation) or having sex with others of the
    same sex (activity).

  • There is no actual reference in the Bible to
    homosexuality, gay men or lesbians.  The
    Biblical references are to same-sex
    penetrative acts and the people who commit
    them.  These people were not thought of as
    a different type of person (gay) but just as
    ordinary people doing unusual sex acts.  
    Therefore any use of homosexuality,
    homosexual or sodomites in a Bible version
    is a misleading translation error*.

    *Examples of this error are:
    sodomite  Deut. 23:17 KJV  (Correct as shrine prostitute
    in NIV)
    homosexuals, sodomites  1 Cor 6:9; NKJV

  • Consequently there is no criticism or
    condemnation in the Bible of –
  • gay men or lesbians as types of people
  • straight men or women who are
    attracted to or love people of the same
  • homosexuality as a sexual orientation
    or as a person-to-person social or
    emotional relationship.

  • The Bible has one criticism of sex between
    women (lesbian, straight or bisexual) by
    calling it shameful lusts and unnatural but
    does not say don’t do it.  The criticism
    seems to be based on how women’s sex
    roles were seen in the Roman and Jewish
    cultures of Biblical times (i.e. women should
    be passive, not active, in sex).  As the
    criticism is culturally based, it does not apply
    today.  More details

  • The Bible does not criticize or prohibit any
    form of sex between men (including oral sex,
    deep kissing, fondling and mutual
    masturbation) except for voluntary or forced
    male-male penetration (anal intercourse).  
    As in other societies of Biblical times, the
    prohibition is aimed at the man being
    penetrated.  This Biblical prohibition seems
    to be mainly based on the cultural view that
    the penetrated man is acting like a woman
    (instead of like a man) in sexual intercourse.  
    The male penetrator is condemned for
    helping the penetrated man to act like a
    woman.  As the prohibition is culturally
    based, it does not apply today.  More details

How many Biblical references are there to same-
sex acts?

There are 7 specific references in the Bible to sex
acts between men.  There is only one specific
reference to sex acts between women.  Details
are in the next 2 answers.

What are the Old Testament references to sex
acts between men?

  • The men of the city of Sodom tried to rape
    male guests being sheltered by Lot.
    (Genesis 19:4-9)  Note that rape, not mutual
    consenting sex, is referred to here.  More

  • The men of the city of Gibeah tried to rape a
    male guest being sheltered by an old man.
    (Judges 19:20-25)  Again note that rape, not
    mutual consenting sex, is referred to here.  
    More details

  • God, through Moses, commanded the
    Israelites that a man should not let another
    man sexually penetrate him.  The penalty for
    penetration (anal intercourse) was death for
    both men. (Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13).  
    More details

What are the New Testament references to sex
acts between men and between women?

  • In Romans 1:18-32, Paul tells what
    happened to people who refused to glorify
    God.  Their thinking became distorted and
    they honored and served created things
    (including idols) rather than God the
    Creator.  Therefore God allowed them to
    follow their own lustful choices and dishonor
    their bodies.  Women and men changed
    from having male-female sex and had
    female-female sex and male-male
    penetrative sex instead.  More details

  • In 1 Corinthians 6:9 Paul states that certain
    types of wrongdoers will not inherit the
    kingdom of God.  Among these are men who
    have sex with men.  Similarly in 1 Timothy 1:
    10 Paul states that the law is made for
    lawbreakers such as men who have sex with
    men.  In each case, he is referring only to
    male-male penetration, not to other forms of
    sex between males. More details

How do these 7 Biblical references apply to
consenting sex between gay men?

None of these 7 references apply to mutually
consenting sex between men if the sexual activity
is oral sex, deep kissing, fondling or mutual
masturbation.  However if the sex is male-male
penetration, the prohibitions in Leviticus and the
implied condemnations in Romans, 1 Corinthians
and 1 Timothy did apply in New Testament
times.  The Leviticus prohibitions applied
because the decision of the Jerusalem Council
(Acts 15:28-29) resulted in the Old Testament
sexual conduct laws applying to Christians.  The
next answer gives more details.

Why do the Old Testament sexual conduct laws
still apply to Christians?

The early church decided that non-Jews who
became Christians would have to follow some,
but not all, of the Old Testament (Jewish) laws.  
The non-Jewish Christians were not to eat
certain food and they were not to be sexually
immoral.  Therefore they had to follow the Old
Testament laws on sexual conduct, including no
incest, adultery, bestiality or male-male
penetration*.  The other Old Testament laws did
not apply to them.  See Acts 15:13-30

    * Old Testament references are:
    No incest  Leviticus 18:6-18; 20:11-12, 14, 17, 19-21
    No adultery  Exodus 20:14  Leviticus 18:20; 20:10
    No bestiality  Leviticus 18:23; 20:15-16
    No male-male penetration  Leviticus 18: 22; 20:13

Although this site claims that the Old Testament
laws on male-male penetration no longer apply
today (because they
applied only to the ancient
Israelite and Greek-
Roman cultures and because
of the
no harm test) the laws on incest, adultery
and bestiality do indeed still apply today
(because they apply to all cultures and because
of the same test).

The no-harm test seems to be an artificial device
to get around the biblical prohibitions on same-
sex intercourse.

The no-harm test is a genuine test based on
Romans 13:9-10 and applies to all types of
interactions between people, not just same-sex
More details

Does the Bible condemn gay sex acts other than

The Bible contains no specific or general
condemnation of other sex acts between men
(including oral sex, deep kissing, fondling and
mutual masturbation).

Does the Bible condemn lesbian sex acts?

Romans 1:26 contains the only reference in the
Bible to females having sex with females.  Paul
criticized sex between females by calling it
shameful lusts and unnatural but did not forbid it
here or anywhere else in his speeches or letters.  
The criticism seems to be based on how women’s
sex roles were seen in the Roman and Jewish
cultures of Paul’s time (i.e. women should be
passive, not active, in sex).  As the criticism is
culturally based, it does not apply today.   

Why does this website refer to penetrative sex
many times?

This website has many references to male-male
or penetrative sex between men
because that is the only aspect of
“homosexuality” that the Bible prohibits or
criticizes.  There is no reference to homosexual
orientation and no prohibition of non-penetrative
sex between men.

In turn, the Bible is concerned about penetrative
sex because that was how the Mediterranean
cultures of Bible times saw sex.  Societies were
thought of as being divided into two groups –
those who did the penetrating (men) and those
who were penetrated (women, slaves, etc).


What did Jesus say about homosexuality?

There are no recorded words of Jesus on the
topic of same-sex orientation or same-sex
activity.  While we do not know Jesus’ views on
this topic, we can surmise his probable views.

Jesus’ ideas on same-sex behavior would have
been partly formed by his Jewish background and
religious education.  This would include his
acceptance of male-female sex as the usual
practice and his knowledge of the prohibition of
full sex between males in Leviticus.  Therefore
Jesus probably agreed with his culture’s view that
male-male penetration is bad.

Although Jesus disagreed with his culture’s view
on keeping the Sabbath and eating “unclean”
foods, he appears to have supported his culture’s
view on sex.  He condemned adultery, illicit or
immoral sex and sexual debauchery (Mark 7:21-
22).  He also emphasized the permanence of
male-female marriage (Mark 10: 6-8) while
rejecting traditional family values (Luke 14:26 and
Matthew 12:47-49).

Jesus’ only implied reference to same-sex sexual
activity is its possible inclusion in his
condemnation of illicit or immoral sex (assuming
that illicit sex is any sexual activity condemned in
the Old Testament).  On the other hand, it is
possible that Jesus was referring to gay men
when he mentioned
born eunuchs – without any
condemnation (Matthew 19:12).  In Bible times,
such men were anatomically whole but were
unable or unwilling to have sex with women.  
They either were not at all interested in sex or
were interested but only with other men.  It might
be noted that a man (like Jesus) in his early 30’s
and showing no interest in being married would
be likely to be called a
born eunuch.

The reason that Jesus is “silent” on same-sex
orientation or same-sex activity could be because:
  • he did not think it a relevant or important
    topic, or
  • his public or intimate comments were
    consistent with his Jewish culture and so
    were not worth reporting to the Gospels’
    audiences (who would hold similar views), or
  • his views were edited out by the Gospel

Whatever the reason, Jesus’ “silence” seems to
show that the topic of homosexuality was not of
major importance in God’s plan for humanity.


Doesn’t the Bible say that sex is only for

  • The Bible presents male-female marriage as
    the usual pattern and implies that this is the
    best place for sex.  But the Bible does not
    prohibit or criticize all sex outside male-
    female marriage.  The Bible simply says that
    certain kinds of sexual intercourse (incest,
    adultery, bestiality, prostitution and male-
    male penetration) are wrong *.  These are
    forms of fornication (illicit sexual intercourse).

  • The parts of the Creation story in Genesis 1:
    28 and 2:24 explain why men and women
    get married and have sex.  These verses do
    not state or imply that all sex must be
    between males and females, or that all sex
    outside male-female marriage is wrong.

  • In Jesus’ comments on divorce in Matthew
    19:4-6, he quoted the Genesis texts merely
    to show that male-female marriage should
    be permanent.  He did not state or imply that
    sexual intercourse should be restricted to
    male-female marriage only.

  • Note that the Bible does not prohibit sex
    between an unmarried man and an
    unmarried woman except where incest is

    * Bible references are:
    Incest  Leviticus 18:6-18; 20:11-12, 14, 17, 19-21
    Adultery  Exodus 20:14  Leviticus 18:20; 20:10
    Bestiality  Leviticus 18:23; 20:15-16
    Prostitution  1 Corinthians 6:15-16
    Male-male sex  Leviticus 18: 22; 20:13   Romans 1:26-
    27  1 Corinthians 6:9  1 Timothy 1:10

What about the view that God intended all sex to
be between males and females?

If God had intended, from Creation onwards, that
sex be only between males and females, one
would expect that the prohibition in Leviticus 18:
22 on sex between males would be accompanied
by a similar prohibition on sex between females.  
Since there is no prohibition on sex between
females, one can’t say that God intended that sex
be only between males and females.

This view is reinforced by the fact that same-sex
sexual activity  has been documented in over 300
species of animals made by God.

Can you comment on the references in the Bible
to having children?

Although the Bible states that God made Adam
and Eve (the first man and woman) and told them
to multiply (have sex and children), it does not
state that every one must marry and have sex
and children.  The most notable Biblical example
of a single man who had no sex or children is

What about the argument that male-male
penetration is wrong because God designed men
and women (but not people of the same sex) to
complement each other (Genesis 2:18 & 24)?

According to this argument, a man and a woman
have different anatomical features and natures
thus allowing their anatomical features (penis and
vagina) to fit together in sexual intercourse and
their different natures to make up for what their
partner lacks.  It is claimed that this is not
possible for two people of the same sex, who
have the same type of anatomical features and
similar natures.

This argument fails because the parts still fit in
male-male penetration (penis and anus).  Also, it
is likely that gay people choose complementary
partners (“opposites attract”) just as much as
straight people.  This could include
complementarity of natures, likes and dislikes,
attitudes, etc.

Other reasons for people in the past (and some
people today) seeing male-male penetration as
wrong are included in
this page.

Can you comment on “God made Adam and Eve,
not Adam and Steve”?

Genesis 2:18-23 refers to the first woman (Eve)
being designed by God at the Creation to be a
helper and a companion to the first man (Adam).  
Some people say this means that God did not
make men to be companions to men and women
to be companions to women in relationships.

However this is not a good argument against
same-sex relationships.  First, the Bible does not
say that people of the same sex can’t be helpers
and companions to each other.  In fact, Jesus
had 12 men as his closest helpers and

Secondly, experience has shown that men can be
just as good companions and helpers to other
men as women are (although in a different way).  
Similarly, women can be just as good
companions and helpers to other women as men
are (again in a different way).


Why does it matter that the Bible says slavery is

The Biblical authors (Moses and Paul) who state
that owning other people as slaves is okay also
condemned male-male penetration.  As we don’t
accept their views on the owning of slaves, we
should question their views condemning male-
male penetration.

Slavery was a cultural matter in Biblical times and
is no longer accepted in modern cultures.  
Similarly the Biblical condemnation of male-male
penetration was a cultural matter in those times
as it was mainly based on the view that men
should not act like women in sexual intercourse
and it was also associated with the raping of
defeated enemy soldiers.  Both of these bases
were cultural and are no longer considered
relevant in modern cultures (although they are
still accepted by some people).  
More information

Also see this informative article on why you
cannot logically oppose both slavery and


Why is it okay to change our minds about

This is okay because God is continuing to reveal
himself and his purposes for us.  For example,
God tells us that he is doing a new thing (Isaiah
43:19).  Sometimes God seems to allow our
cultural institutions to continue for a long time,
then he makes changes.  An example is that,
under God’s guidance and revelation, many
Christian people’s attitude to slavery changed in
the 18th and 19th centuries from being pro-
slavery to anti-slavery.  Similarly, under God’s
guidance and revelation, many Christian people’s
attitude to homosexuality is now changing from
being anti-gay to pro-gay.

The church is now in a similar position to that
faced by churches in the 18th and 19th centuries
over the question of slavery.  Then the churches
had to take no notice of the Biblical endorsement
of slavery in order to free human beings.  Now
churches should similarly take no notice of the
Biblical condemnation of penetrative sex between
men when it causes
no harm.  This can be
justified by Saint Paul’s view that “The
commandments … are summed up in this one
rule: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’  Love does
no harm to its neighbor”.  (Romans 13: 9-10)

God’s continuing revelation of himself comes
primarily by the Holy Spirit guiding scholarship
and revealing new Biblical insights.  Over the
years this has led to much of the Christian church
setting aside various Biblical commands,
including not charging interest on loans, not
ordaining women, not remarrying divorcees, and
allowing slavery.


How is the Bible interpreted on this website?

  • It is assumed that the Bible is literally true
    and reliable and that God inspired its

  • A verse or passage is interpreted by working
    out its plain meaning in its grammatical,
    historical, social and cultural contexts.  This
    assumes that an author wanted his
    audience to understand what he was writing.

  • Also note is made of the author’s intent,
    whether the text is liturgical, legal, prose,
    poetry, etc, and the book’s purpose e.g.
    Genesis is mythic but not a scientific text.

  • The interpretation of a verse or passage
    takes into account the historical and cultural
    setting of both the writer and his original

  • The Bible is assumed to be internally
    consistent with one verse sometimes
    modifying another verse.

  • The relevance of a verse or passage for us
    today is found partly by comparing its
    background and culture to our current world
    and society structure.  This enables us to
    apply as fully as possible the moral point of
    the Biblical teaching.  This was done by
    Jesus when he said “You have heard that it
    was said …., but I say to you …” (Matthew 5:

  • The views of various Christian
    commentators and scholars are often taken
    into account when interpreting the Bible for
    this site.  However other sources extending
    or changing the Bible’s meaning, such as
    the Talmuds, are not taken into account.

    The above interpretative method is partly
    based on principles in Slavery, Sabbath,
    War, and Women by Willard M. Swartley,


Do Christians have to obey the Old Testament

Christians don’t have to obey the Old Testament
laws as a complete code.  However they should
obey any Old Testament commands specifically
adopted in the New Testament by Jesus, Paul or
the other apostles. (This is in addition to obeying
the new commands and principles given in the
New Testament).

Note that the moral and ethical aspects of the Old
Testament laws do offer a good guide as to how
one’s life should be lived according to God’s will,
especially by doing good and refraining from evil.  
Also the New Testament references to obeying
certain commands of the Old Testament
emphasize doing good because we love God and
our neighbor instead of just following the letter of
the law.

Also note that the references to male-male
penetration in the New Testament are not
commands but simply describe situations implying
that such penetration is wrong.

What are the criteria for a good sexual

The criteria for a good sexual relationship include
that the relationship be consensual, loving
(mutual care and concern), faithful, committed,
equal, monogamous, non-incestuous, and non-

If a person does not accept the Bible as a guide
for daily living, how does that person decide
what to do?

The person should love (care for) other people,
not harm them, and treat them as he or she would
like to be treated.

Why do some people dislike the whole topic of

It is claimed that many straight people have a
natural, inborn distaste for the idea of same-sex
attraction and feel disgusted at its sexual
expression, especially male-male penetration.

Also some people think that many gay men are
effeminate or weak (sissies).  Further, both gay
men and lesbians are often seen as unnatural or
outsiders (they are
others – not us).  This is
compounded by fear of the unknown or of

In many cases, these feelings and views are the
result of culture and upbringing and style.  As a
song from “South Pacific” states : “You’ve got to
be taught to love and hate before you are six or
seven or eight.  To hate all the people your
relatives hate, you’ve got to be carefully taught.”

Why are there gay people?

It seems that God has created some people who
are attracted to people of the same sex and some
people who are attracted to the opposite sex.  
This is similar to God creating both left-handed
and right-handed people.  Why God does this we
don’t know.


How does homosexuality compare to left-

The following table compares homosexuality
(same-sex orientation) and left-handedness,
including attitudes towards both.

This table is partly based on: John A. Hamill,
“Dexterity and Sexuality: Is There a Relationship?”, Journal of
, v.28 no.3, 1995, p.375–396
Also partly based on a table

In summary, some people’s current attitudes to
homosexuality are very similar to past attitudes to
left-handedness, which are no longer accepted
as correct.


What are some of the things which the Bible
not say about homosexuality?

  • Homosexuality (sexual orientation) is wrong
    and sinful  (this is false)

  • Homosexuality is a disordered condition  
    (this is false)

  • Gay men and lesbians are condemned  (this
    is false)

  • Oral sex, mutual masturbation, etc between
    men is sinful  (this is false)

  • Sex between women is sinful  (this is false)

  • No sex outside marriage  (this is false)

  • Marriage is only for creating children  (this is

  • Only men and women can complement each
    other and have a fulfilled relationship  (this
    is false)


What should gay and lesbian people do to find
happiness and contentment?

People should first accept themselves as they
are.  If they have heard and believe the Christian
message, they should then follow Jesus.  If not,
they should live the best ethical lives they can.

What does the Bible say about same-sex
attraction and love?

The Bible accepts and has positive stories of
same-sex emotional attraction and deep
friendship.  For example Jesus and the disciple
he loved, David and Jonathan, and Ruth.  As far
as we know, these loving relationships were not
sexual and there was no sexual attraction.


How accurate are websites and books and
articles about homosexuality and the Bible?

When you see a  website or read a book or
article about homosexuality and the Bible, be very
critical and skeptical about what you see.  Many
pro-gay and anti-gay authors make lots of
assumptions and spin the facts to “prove” what
they want to prove, not what is the truth.  Their
distortions are then passed on by others who
think that the distortions are the truth.

The most common spin is to claim that the Bible
doesn’t prohibit or criticize modern loving same-
sex activity at all.  This is done, for example, by
claiming that the Leviticus verses only referred to
sex with male cultic prostitutes.  Another example
is claiming that the Romans verse mainly refers to
sex as part of idol worship.  In reality, these
verses refer to all anal sex between men (but do
not apply to men today).

Therefore read the Bible verses about same-sex
activity* in various versions for yourself
(especially the New American Standard Bible, the
Lexham English Bible and Young’s Literal
Translation) and try to work out what they really
mean.  The other pages on this site should help
you do this.

* Genesis 19:4-9, Judges 19:20-25, Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13,
Romans 1:18-32, 1 Corinthians 6:9-10, 1 Timothy 1:9-10

The following articles go deeper into this question:

Hermeneutical Issues In The Use Of The Bible
To Justify
The Acceptance Of Homosexual
(This article has many good points but I disagree
with its final conclusion that homosexual practice
is morally wrong).

Reading Strategies for Biblical Passages on

A Reformed Response to Daniel Helminiak's Gay

A Further Look at Pro-Homosexual Theology

How accurate is this website?

The views expressed on this website have been
formed after more than 10 years of research (on
the internet and in religious books and journals),
thought, prayer and  guidance from God.  The
research was carried out with an open mind and
many pro-gay and anti-gay views were rejected
(see the “False Views” parts of the Sodom,
Moses, Romans and Corinthians pages of this
site).  Care has been taken to be as accurate,
complete, logical and unbiased as possible.  
However the views are those of one person (with
assistance from his sister) and there will still be
some unintended bias.

You are invited to use the information on this site
to help you come to your own conclusions.

Why does this site have few references and

Actually this site has more references and
footnotes than first appears.  Where a point or
quote is made from the Bible or other book or
article, references are given either at that spot or
elsewhere on the site where the quote is
repeated.  Similarly where a point or quote is
made from another site, a link is given to that site.

Some background statements (e.g. cultural
attitudes of Biblical times) have been obtained
from many sources and are not individually
sourced.  And, of course, some arguments and
deductions are original to this site.

  (same-sex orientation)
2 – 5% of population are
predominantly or exclusively
attracted to the same sex
and act on that attraction

Over 10% of population are
predominantly or
exclusively left-handed
(varies from 3% to 27%)
Same-sex orientation is
slightly more common in men
than women but men have
about twice as many
same-sex experiences as
Left-handedness is slightly
more common in men than
Same-sex orientation is
distributed over the whole
population – male and
female, young and old.  It is
never absent from any
Left-handedness is
distributed over the whole
population – male and
female, young and old.  It is
never absent from any

Being attracted to a person
of the same sex is not a
conscious choice or
preference.  But acting on
that attraction is a conscious
natural choice
Finding it easier to use the
left hand is not a conscious
choice or preference.  But
using the left hand is a
conscious natural choice

Homosexuality and
heterosexuality can be
considered as alternate
patterns of development
Left- and right-handedness
can be considered as
alternate patterns of

Same-sex orientation or
intercourse is not a disease
Left-handedness is not a

Same-sex intercourse is
sometimes treated as sinful
or criminal behavior
Left-handedness is
sometimes treated as
wrong behavior

The Bible condemns sex
between males and
disapproves of sex between
The Bible treats the right
hand as superior and
powerful and treats the left
hand as inferior

Homosexuals are often
socially and legally
persecuted and
discriminated against
Left-handed people have
been (and in some places
still are) socially persecuted
and discriminated against

Over time some people have
changed their attitudes,
revised their views and
discarded some prejudices
about homosexuality
Over time some people
have changed their
attitudes, revised their
views and discarded some
prejudices about

Male homosexuality is often
considered dirty from its
association with anal
The left hand is sometimes
considered dirty as it is
used for cleaning of
excretory functions in some

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Author: Colin Smith